Nigeria History Much has been said and written about Nigeria, her people and culture, economy and politics, that sheds light on the tremendous potential of this African Giant. However, little is known to the outside world about the many exciting tourist attractions available in Nigeria: Historic sites nestled amid rivers and rain forests, breathtaking mountain vistas, remote creek villages, miles of pristine beaches and exotic national wildlife reserves. There are also museums, festivals, music and dance, a rich cultural melange right down to everyday traditional markets. These are just some of the spectacular sights and sensual delights awaiting the traveler to Nigeria. Nigeria has the largest population of any country in Africa about million , and the greatest diversity of cultures, ways of life, cities and terrain. With a total land area of , sq. Nigeria is the 14th largest country in Africa. Its coastline, on the Gulf of Guinea, stretches km mi. Nigeria shares its international border of 4, km mi.
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Nigeria Table of Contents Throughout Africa societies that had been predominantly rural for most of their history were experiencing a rapid and profound reorientation of their social and economic lives toward cities and urbanism. As ever greater numbers of people moved to a small number of rapidly expanding cities or, as was often the case, a single main city , the fabric of life in both urban and rural areas changed in massive, often unforeseen ways.
With the largest and one of the most rapidly growing cities in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria has experienced the phenomenon of urbanization as thoroughly as any African nation, but its experience has also been unique–in scale, in pervasiveness, and in historical antecedents. Modern urbanization in most African countries has been dominated by the growth of a single primate city, the political and commercial center of the nation; its emergence was, more often than not, linked to the shaping of the country during the colonial era.
In countries with a coastline, this was often a coastal port, and in Nigeria, Lagos fitted well into this pattern. Unlike most other nations, however, Nigeria had not just one or two but several other cities of major size and importance, a number of which were larger than most other national capitals in Africa.
Notices Protocol I am delighted to welcome you to this Festival of Arts, Culture, and Expo Award event, making the first time the Consulate is facilitating such an event in Atlanta in collaboration with AfriQtalk and other organizations. In this vein, let me congratulate AfriQtalk and the Chambers for the insightful initiative. The theme of the event is aptly captured as: It is also an extension of their human expression.
The role of Arts and Culture as catalyst to progressive multiculturalism is gaining more recognition, while artifacts open our eyes to our historical existence. Our cultural heritage keeps our memories alive of how beliefs and cultural expressions have contributed to the development of society. Nigeria is a land of rich artistic heritage and endowed with the abundance of creativity dating back to over years.
Nigerian cultural riches are well demonstrated through art, dance, literature, folklore, music, etc. Some of these need specific mention. Others are the woodwork of Oron and other tribes of the South-South of Nigeria, the pottery work of the people around the Federal Capital Territory, the leather works of the North and many others.
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Though there is archaeological evidence that societies have been living in Nigeria for more than twenty-five hundred years, the borders of modern Nigeria were not created until the British consolidated their colonial power over the area in The name Nigeria was suggested by British journalist Flora Shaw in the s. She referred to the area as Nigeria, after the Niger River, which dominates much of the country’s landscape. The word niger is Latin for black. More than ethnic tribes call present-day Nigeria home.
The three largest and most dominant ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo pronounced ee-bo. Prior to their conquest by Europeans, these ethnic groups had separate and independent histories. Their grouping together into a single entity known as Nigeria was a construct of their British colonizers. These various ethnic groups never considered themselves part of the same culture.
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Nok sculpture, terracotta The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and AD , producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in Nri and Aguleri , where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan.
Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife’s current site date back to the 9th century,  and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Middle Ages — Further information:
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The areas covered by the licenses are in the districts of southern, north east, south east, Ngamiland, Kweneng, Kgalagadi, Gantsi and central. It is just over six years since the government evicted more than Bushmen from the reserve, although it has always denied any connection between mining and the evictions.
The Bushmen won the right to return to their land inside the reserve in a landmark ruling at Botswana’s High Court in , where the judges recognized that the evictions had been ‘unlawful’ and ‘unconstitutional’. But the Botswana government is doing all it can to stop the Bushmen from going home, banning them from using a water borehole to get water inside the reserve, and stopping them from hunting for food. Meanwhile, any mines in the reserve will have to drill multiple boreholes to operate, and will create massive disruption to both the Bushmen and the wildlife.
Villagers to be resettled for Letlhakane uranium mine project: This week, the Australia-based company [ A-Cap Resources Ltd ] said it has embarked on a comprehensive consultation and engagement with communities affected by the envisaged project in those villages in the Central District. It added that the committee is expected to work with A-Cap and Ecosurv during the development of the RAP, which will ultimately guide the developer during the compensation phase.
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Victoria Island Tinubu Square Lagos Island, The Island is a loose geographical term that is used to define the area of Lagos that is separated from the “mainland” by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic Ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The Island is mainly a collection of islands that are separated from each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected together by bridges. The smaller sections of some creeks have been dredged and built over.
This part of Lagos is the area where most business activities and entertainment events in Lagos takes place. It also houses most of the upscale residential areas in Lagos.
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Early Nigerian cultures The Nok culture Evidence of human occupation in Nigeria dates back thousands of years. The oldest fossil remains found by archaeologists in the southwestern area of Iwo Eleru, near Akure , have been dated to about bce. There are isolated collections of ancient tools and artifacts of different periods of the Stone Age , but the oldest recognizable evidence of an organized society belongs to the Nok culture c. Named for the village of Nok, site of some of the finds, the ancient culture produced fine terra-cotta figurines, which were accidentally discovered by tin miners on the Jos Plateau in the s.
Its people raised crops and cattle and seem to have paid particular attention to personal adornment, especially of the hair. Distinctive features of Nok art include naturalism, stylized treatment of the mouth and eyes, relative proportions of the human head, body, and feet, distortions of the human facial features, and treatment of animal forms.
The spread of Nok-type figures in a wide area south of the Jos Plateau , covering southern Kaduna state southeastward to Katsina Ala, south of the Benue River , suggests a well-established culture that left traces still identifiable in the lives of the peoples of the area today. Many of the distinctive features of Nok art can also be traced in later developments of Nigerian art produced in such places as Igbo Ukwu, Ife , Esie, and Benin City.
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Lagos Island annexed as a colony of Britain Mr. The northern and southern protectorates were amalgamated to form Nigeria. Colonial officer Frederick Lugard was governor-general.
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Oyo Empire During the 15th century Oyo and Benin surpassed Ife as political and economic powers, although Ife preserved its status as a religious center. Respect for the priestly functions of the oni of Ife was a crucial factor in the evolution of Yoruban culture. The Ife model of government was adapted at Oyo, where a member of its ruling dynasty controlled several smaller city-states. A state council the Oyo Mesi named the Alaafin king and acted as a check on his authority.
Unlike the forest-bound Yoruba kingdoms, Oyo was in the savanna and drew its military strength from its cavalry forces, which established hegemony over the adjacent Nupe and the Borgu kingdoms and thereby developed trade routes farther to the north. The Benin Empire — ; called Bini by locals was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey.
Northern kingdoms of the Sahel[ edit ] The Songhai Empire, c.
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The Igbo dominated version of the genre grew out of earlier “Igbo blues ” or ” palm wine music ” and further spread in popularity to the Southern Cameroons where Enugu had considerable influence in arts and culture in towns such as Limbe , Tiko and Douala. Media and literature[ edit ] See also: Held at Hotel Presidential, the festival’s intent was to highlight Enugu as a “film making hub” in Africa including movie premiers and prizes for different film categories.
His home in Hilltop contained many of his unpublished writings which were mostly destroyed by bombing early in the war. The stadium remained the centre of sports for the whole of the Eastern Region until the Nigerian Civil War broke out. At the war’s end the stadium was refurbished.
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Besides, about 15 power units in various plants across the country were unable to generate electricity on August 9 due to gas and frequency management constraints which resulted in unutilised capacity of over 2, Plant operators attribute poor generation to gas shortages and their huge debt burden to producers. As a result, gas producers prefer to channel their product for export to get good value. Also, transmission challenges make it difficult for the little output from the Gencos to be evacuated because the national grid is not strong enough to wheel all the power generated.
The country lost N1. The contract for the MW Kaduna power project awarded in was to be completed within 36 months, but it is experiencing some delay. The alternative power projects are not spared as the completion of the 10MW Katsina Wind Plant has been stalled. The MW Trans-Amadi plant is not yet feeding the grid.